Plant And Shop Layout

Plant And Shop Layout

Introduction

This is About Plant and Shop layout. In an assembling association, work to be made invests the majority of the energy in the moving and pausing. To the reduction of this moving and waiting time of jobs/parts, it is necessary to have a proper layout and proper scheduling procedures. Plant layout specifies the position of the overall arrangement of the various facilities such as equipment, material, manpower, materials handling, service facilities, and passage required to facilitate the efficient operation of the production system of the plant within the area of the site selected previously.

Shop layout in manufacturing plant also forms an integral part of factory planning or plant layout. Plant layout begins with the design of the position of the factory building and goes up to the location and movement of a work table of the machine. All the manufacturing facilities such as equipment, raw materials, machinery, tools, fixtures, workers, etc. are given a proper place in each shop of the manufacturing plant.

Plant layout of an industrial organization plays an important role in scientific management and is defined as: “Plant layout is such a systematic and efficient functional arrangement of various departments, machines, tools, equipment and other supports services of an industrial organization that will facilitate the smooth processing of the proposed or undertaken product in the most effective, most efficient and most economical manner in the minimum possible time” Plant layout of an industrial organization comprises of all the aspects connected with the industrial enterprise, viz., grounds, buildings, machinery, equipment, departments, methods of manufacturing, factory services, material handling, the flow of production, working conditions, hygiene, labor and shipment of goods, etc. * Plant and Shop layout *

Objectives of good plant layout

 The main objectives of a good plant layout involve minimum material movement, smooth flow of the product in the plant, full utilization of the space of the plant, provide adequate safety and satisfaction to the plant workers, evolve sufficient flexibility in the arrangement of the above factors so as to suit the minor future changes, if any and facilitates effective supervision.

Important factors

The important factors while planning for the installation of the plant include the availability of space, power, water, raw material, good climatic conditions, good means of communication, ancillaries, low local taxes and similar other economic considerations, marketing facilities for the planned product, space for process disposal and skilled and unskilled labor locally. One has to keep in mind the possibilities of utilization and sale of the process wastes and by-products of the planned industry. The decision of manufacturing a new product, financial and other aids, facilities for expansion presence of related industries, local bylaws, and securities, hospitality are also important factors that one must keep in mind for the location of an enterprise.

Advantages

1. Reduced men and machine hours per unit of production

2. Effectively and economical utilization of entire floor space of the plant

3. Work flow is smooth and continuous

4. Work in process inventory is less

5. Production control is better

6. Manufacturing time is less

7. Relatively less floor area is required

7. Relatively less floor area is required

Types of Layout

The fulfilling the objectives of a good layout as per yearly product requirement and product types, the layouts are classified into four major categories namely

1. Fixed or Position Layout

Applications:

This type of layout is mostly adopted for extremely large items manufactured in very small quantity such as ships, aero planes, aircraft, locomotive, ship assembly shops, shipyards, boilers, reactors etc

Fixed or Position Layout
Fixed or Position Layout

Advantages

1. Layout is highly flexible for varieties of products having intermittent demand as the type of product and the related processes can be easily altered without any change in the layout.

2. There is a minimum movement of men, material, and tooling during the manufacturing process.

3. The material is drastically reduced.

4. Highly skilled operators are required to complete the work at one point and responsibility for quality is fixed on one person or the assembly crew.

5. Every personnel of manufacturing team is responsible for quality work for manufacturing the product.

Disadvantages

1. The cost of equipment handling is very high.

2. Labors and equipment are difficult to utilize fully.

3. It is limited to large items only.

2. Process or Functional Layout

Process or Functional Layout
Process or Functional Layout

Application:

1. This layout is used for batch or moderate production.

2. It specify path for group technology

Advantages

1. There exists a wide flexibility regarding allotment of work to equipment and workers.

2. There is a better utilization of the available equipment.

3. Comparatively less numbers of machines are needed in this layout and hence thus reducing capital investment.

4. There is an improved product quality, because the supervisors and workers attend to one type of machines and operations.

5. Varieties of jobs coming as different job orders thus make the work more interesting for the workers.

6. Workers in one section are not affected by the nature of the operations carried out in another section. For example, a lathe operator is not affected by the rays of the welding as the two sections are quite separate.

Disadvantages

1. This layout requires more space in comparison to line or product layout for the same amount of production.

2. Production control becomes relatively difficult in this layout.

3. Raw material has to travel more which increases material handling and the associated costs.

4. This layout requires more efficient co-ordination and inspections.

5. Increased material handling cost due to more movement of process raw material to various paths

6. More material in process remains in queue for further operations.

7. Requires large in-process inventory.

8. Completion of same product takes more time..

3. Line or Product Layout

Line or product layout
Line or product layout

Applications:

 It is used in assembly work.

Advantages

1. It involves smooth and continuous work flow.

2. It may require less skilled workers

3. It helps in reducing inventory.

4. Production time is reduced in this layout.

5. Better coordination, simple production planning and control are achieved in this layout.

6. For the same amount of production, less space requirements for this layout.

7. Overall processing time of product is very less.

8. This layout involves automatic material handling, lesser material movements and hence leads to the minimum possible cost of manufacturing.

Disadvantages

   1. It is very difficult to increase production beyond the capacities of the production lines.

2. When single inspector has to look after many machines, inspection becomes difficult

3. This layout is very less flexible for product change.

4. The rate or pace rate of working depends upon the output rate of the slowest machine and hence leading to excessive idle time for other machines if the production line is not adequately balanced.

5. Machines being put up along the line, more machines of each type have to be installed for keeping a few as stand by, because if on the machine in the line fails, it may lead to shut down of the complete production line. That is why the line or product layout involves heavy capital investments.

4. Combination or group layout

Combination or group layout
Combination or group layout

Application:

Manufacturing circular metal saws, hacksaw, wooden saw, files and crank shaft.

Advantages

1. Reduction in cost of machine set-up time and material handling of metals.

2. Elimination of excess work-in-process inventory which subsequently allows the reduction in lot size.

3. Simplification of production planning functions, etc.

Disadvantages

 1. Change of the existing layout is time consuming and costly.

2. Inclusion of new components in the existing component requires thorough analysis.

3. Change of input component mix may likely to change complete layout structure.

4. Change of batch size may change number of machines.

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